Hausa uses ْ [U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN] to kill the vowel after a consonant, eg. See suppression. One of the 'alternate' shapes used for this sound is ب [U+0628 ARABIC LETTER BEH]. context-based shaping; Normally, this would be written using س [U+0633 ARABIC LETTER SEEN], but ص [U+0635 ARABIC LETTER SAD] is also used, mainly in Arabic loan words.aww, ڟ [U+069F ARABIC LETTER TAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE]. This page gathers together basic information about the Arabic script and its use for the Hausa language. A verse from Aljiyu Namangi, Imfiraji, Part 3 (Verse 3). Hausa Ajami Literature and Script 91 period were produced at the request of the Europeans, there was at least one case of reaction to their domination. Hausa has been written in ajami, since the early 15th century.There is no … Sources: Wikipedia, and Google Translate. ◌َـوْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], eg. Many of those have no visible form of their own. The infrequently used characters come from these blocks. Here are some examples. U+069F ARABIC LETTER TAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+06A0 ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE, U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW, U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+08C3 ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+08C4 ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+06A8 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE, (They don't appear to have glyphs in the webfont used. Normally written using ز [U+0632 ARABIC LETTER ZAIN], however there are 2 'alternate' letters, ذ [U+0630 ARABIC LETTER THAL], and ظ [U+0638 ARABIC LETTER ZAH]. CM (combining mark) takes on the behaviour of its base character. Siffa tare da "rubutu", rubutun ajami. The following maps the above sounds to graphemes. Mostly these adaptations follow the North African, magrebi approach. forms & user interaction; ىٰٜـ [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW]. Islamic Hausa poetry Therefore, it is inappropriate to use. Usman ɗan Fodiyo (1754-1817), who established the Sokoto Caliphate in Northern Nigeria (1804-1903), effectively used Hausa Ajami to make the Sokoto jihād a mass movement (Bobboyi 2008, 123-30). ◌َـوْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], eg. There is a good deal of variation in the orthography for Hausa ajami, and no official standardisation. ; Tarihi da Ma'anar Kalmar daga VOA Hausa … Hausa is normally written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. Not clear whether Hausa uses ٫ [U+066B ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR] and ٬ [U+066C ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR]. For example, there is no break in “100.00” or “10,000”, nor in “12:59”.. QU (quotation) characters can be opening or closing, or even both, depending on usage. Nevertheless, tones are not represented in everyday writing. Because of British colonial influence, in the early 20th century, an alternate script based on the Latin language alphabet was also developed known as … The growth of Hausa ʿAjamī was accelerated by the reform movement of Uthman dan Fodio (1754-1817) and the Sokoto Caliphate, which dominated the Northern Nigerian region through the 19 th century, and which is often equated with Hausaland itself. Many medieval Hausa manuscripts, similar to the Timbuktu Manuscripts written in the Ajami script, have been discovered recently and some of them even describe constellations and calendars.. Such people could go to court to argue that their own rights were being infringed should the Ajami inscription be … Use of ajami tends to be restricted to Muslim contexts. For Quranic names, ه [U+0647 ARABIC LETTER HEH] is generally used, but both can sometimes also be used interchangeably, eg. A lawyer has asked a court in Nigeria's commercial city of Lagos to compel the country's central bank to remove the Arabic script which appears on most naira banknotes. font styles; writing styles; This section is for any features that are specific to thisScript and that relate to the following topics: (Character counts exclude ASCII characters.). Jula Ajami in Burkina Faso: A grassroots literacy in the former Kong empire. Since African languages involve phonetic sounds and systems different from the Arabic language, there have often been adaptations of the Arabic script to transcribe them, a process similar to what has been done with the Arabic script in non-Arab countries of the Middle East and South Asia and with the Latin script in Africa or with the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet. Orthographic development & variants. They depend on an initial base consonant with a 3-dot diacritic, which may or may not be followed by و [U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW] or ی [U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH]. They include the following: The Arabic script is an abjad. A typical feature of the Warsh orthography is that a character has dots in initial or medial positions, but none in final or isolate. According to the BBC these include, “among others, Swahili in East Africa, Tamashek, the language of the Tuaregs in North and West Africa, and Nigerian languages like Kanuri, Nupe, Yoruba, Fulfulde and Hausa”. IS (infix numeric separators) usually occurs inside a numerical expression and may not be separated from the numeric characters that follow, unless a space character intervenes. Select part of this sample text to show a (Warren-Rothlinaww lists a handful of other, less commonly attested shapes, but they are not listed here.). Gemination is, however, a distinctive feature.bc. 1979. Other fonts used for the body text in other articles tended to also have a slight lean, though not as much. Unlike Semitic languages, where words are built on letter patterns, it can be very difficult to read Hausa text without the full vowel information. The written Hausa uses two different scripts: Ajami script used since the 17th century and Boko script used since the 19th century. Proverbs from Rattray, Hausa Folk-Lore, Customs, Proverbs, etc., Volume 2, p. 272. Text is normally written horizontally, right to left, however numbers and non-Arabic script text run left to right. In the standard writing system found in printed books, the diacritic marks over vowels would be absent. ل [U+0644 ARABIC LETTER LAM] in the normal orthography, however an 'alternate' form used sometimes is ض [U+0636 ARABIC LETTER DAD]. The words and meaning of the inscriptions are Hausa but laced in Arabic script … case & other character transforms. Hausa can be written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. Hausa was first written in an Arabic script known as Ajami. Su dai yan-adam, ana haifuwarsu ne duka yantattu, kuma kowannensu na da mutunci da hakkoki daidai da na kowa. شِدَیْنَا ʃiday͓naā. Hausa can be written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. Modern Arabic-script text makes use of a relatively large set of invisible formatting characters, especially in plain text, many of which are used to manage text direction. PanAfrican L10n page on Arabic script and "Ajami", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ajami_script&oldid=992094049, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. notes, footnotes, etc; For more details, see the Arabic overview. Sai suka ce wa juna, "Ku zo, mu yi tubula, mu gasa su sosai." Observation: Panels of text in a Tamil newspaper that uses oblique fonts, but all the body text of the panel uses that font. See the Arabic overview for more details. This orthography was introduced by the British around the beginning of the 20th century, and aligned with the Pan-Nigerian alphabet in the 1980s. Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned. See clusters. This section brings together information about the following topics: The IPA notation for this sound is somewhat ambiguous, including ƒ, ʔʲ, and j̰ . Three consonant sounds in syllable initial position can be followed by ʷ or ʲ. Warren-Rothlinaww however indicates what appears to be ن [U+0646 ARABIC LETTER NOON] rather than ࢽ [U+08BD ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN NOON] in Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp. He also wants the army to stop using the Arabic inscription: "Victory is from… Examples Of Hausa Ajami Script by kaura5000: 12:41pm On Feb 08, 2016 ajami is a type of alphabets derived from arabic that was used by different ethnic groups before coming of europeans to africa.. eg hausa,mandinka,songhay,fula etc However, Hausa Ajami is still in widespread use, especially in Islamic circles. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. Unlike Standard Arabic, all short vowel diacritics are usually written in Hausa ajami. Warren-Rothlinaww says the following about these characters. Use of ajami tends to be restricted to Muslim contexts. If the CBN had said that, since a large number of Hausa speaking, Ajami-literate people could now read Latin characters, they wish to remove the Ajami, it would have made better sense. Characters used for the Hausa language have the following assignments related to line-break properties. Rubutun Hausa da haruffan Larabci. Writing Systems in Hausa. baselines, line height, etc. The Hausa language is a tonal language. The term Ajami (Arabic: عجمي, ʿajamī) or Ajamiyya (Arabic: عجمية, ʿajamiyyah), which comes from the Arabic root for foreign or stranger, has been applied to Arabic alphabets used for writing African languages, especially those of Hausa and Swahili, although many other African languages were written using the script, among them Yoruba, the Fulani/Pulaar of Fulfulde. Today, this representation of the language has been superseded for most purposes by the Roman script. general page layout & progression; Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp associate this sound with ࢼ [U+08BC ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF] for the Warsh variant, as do others, but Warren-Rothlinaww lists what appears to be ڧ [U+06A7 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH DOT ABOVE] for this sound (although it could be an incorrect attribution, given that the former has a dot over initial/medial forms). The Warš orthography is typically written using a particularly African font style called Kano. Another is that the dots appear on the other side of the base in some characters from the side they would appear in the Hafs orthography. The other two characters have a triple-dot addition which is associated with glottalised consonants in the Warš orthography. Note that diphthongs ending with i follow the initial vowel diacritic with ی [U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH] rather than ى [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA]. Ajami is a modified Arabic script used for writing Hausa, just as the Roman alphabet is used for English, explains Mustapha Kurfi, an Ajami scholar. Semivowels ʷ and ʲ may occur after an initial consonant. lppuwa, أَ [U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE + U+064E ARABIC FATHA], ◌َـا [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF], ◌َـیْـ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], ◌َـیْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN]. When Western colonizers adopted a Latin orthography for Hausa, Ajami went into decline and now is employed less frequently than the Latin standard orthography. Hausa also has more vowel sounds than Arabic, so some additional conventions are necessary to cover those. The term Ajami (Arabic: عجمي , ʿajamī) or Ajamiyya (Arabic: عجمية , ʿajamiyyah), which comes from the Arabic root for foreign or stranger, has been applied to Arabic alphabets used for writing African languages, especially those of Hausa and Swahili, although many other African languages were written using the script, among them Yoruba, the Fulani/Pulaar of Fulfulde. Text written in the Kano style will include glyphs for a number of African characters that may not be available in the average naskh font. کٜىٰݑٜىٰتَ keıˈɓ̇eıˈta. Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Need clarity on use of punctuation. Most sources associate this sound with ٻ [U+067B ARABIC LETTER BEEH] for the Warsh orthography, but Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp list that character as Hafs, and show ݑ [U+0751 ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH DOT BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE] as the Warsh variant. I settled for the last of these, though not for any convincing reason. هَوُسَ / Yaren Hausa (Hausa) A lokacin, harshen mutanen duniya ɗaya ne, maganarsu kuma ɗaya ce. These differences are represented in Unicode by the use of different characters. Around 1907 CAH dan Sidi, the ruler of Zaria who was Sarkin Zazzau from 1903 to 1920 and was later deposed by the British, was taught Hausa in Roman script. Warren-Rothlinaww also lists what appears to be ڢ [U+06A2 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW] for this sound, although it could again be an incorrect attribution, given that ࢻ [U+08BB ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN FEH] has a dot below initial/medial forms. In previous articles like, "Systemic Foolery", I have given some… So there is some variation as to which characters are mapped to which sounds, and the sets described here are a synthesis of sources describing modern usage. Additional alternative shapes also occur, typically used for borrowed words, or because sounds are not differentiated in some regions. iv-clix). In addition, the following letters may be used for glottalised sounds as well as normal sounds. The transcriptions show vowel length with a macron over the vowel and low tone with a grave accent (`). Per the rules for syllable structure in Hausa, vowels are always preceded by a consonant, and where no consonant is written before a vowel in the Boko orthography that consonant is an unwritten glottal stop. There is little information available about how these characters are used, and some ambiguity in what there is. ْ [U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN] indicates the absence of a vowel. ݣَاشٜىٰ. <> Hausa or another language other than Arabic written in Arabic script. The so-called linguist was unaware of this and he … ݣ [U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], ࣃ [U+08C3 ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], ࣄ [U+08C4 ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE]. "A-label: African Languages between the Lines": a research blog associated with the Ajami Lab at the Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures at the Universität Hamburg. In a non-Kano font, the difference is in the shape of the final position glyph, ـك vs. ـک, respectively. Minority and restricted uses of the Arabic alphabet: the aljamiado phenomenon. Need to confirm whether Hausa uses the following digit forms. حَوْسَا or هَوْسَا.aww. The West African Hausa is an example of a language written using Ajami, especially during the pre-colonial period when Qur'anic schools taught Muslim children Arabic and by extension, Ajami. Ajami is Hausa in Arabic style , it's the first writing style in Nigeria and it has been in existence and begin used in the northern part of Nigeria before our colonial master introduced us to western education and writing in Roman script. ج [U+062C ARABIC LETTER JEEM] (same as d͡ʒ), The usual form is ح [U+062D ARABIC LETTER HAH]. See the Arabic overview for more details, especially related to sequences of items and numbers. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. It is considered an Arabic-derived African writing system. Solken's Collection by Stanislaw Pilaszewicz Historical poetry in Hausa in Roman script covering many topics and regions with each section followed by English translation (pp. Just as the Latin script spread with Christianity and was adapted to write languages other than Latin originally in religious contexts, the Arabic script was extended to write in the languages of Islamic scholars. تَرْسَشِنْ tar͓saʃin͓. EX (exclamation mark/interrogation) behave like closing characters, except in relation to postfix (PO) and non-starter characters (NS). The following are additional characters that may be used to write Hausa ajami, including some used for the Hafs orthography, and others used in borrowed words, or text written by speakers who don't make the phonemic distinctions in the table above. Looking at the samples in the Unicode proposallpp, there seem to be two different forms for each. Unlike Standard Arabic, these diacritics are normally shown in Hausa text. This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 13:36. The Arabic script uses a large number of Unicode characters that affect the way that other characters are rendered. Malcolm Omirhobo is a Nigerian Lawyer and Human Rights activist who wrote a petition demanding that the 'Arabic' inscription be removed from the naira notes. أ إ ا و ى ی ب ت د ث ج ک غ ع ٻ ط ڟ ࢼ ࢻ س ز ش ح م ࢽ ل ر ۑ ݣ ك ݑ ق ف پ ص ذ ظ ه ن ض ؿ ࣃ ࣄ, AL (ordinary alphabetic and symbol characters), ، ؟ أ إ ا ب ت ث ج ح د ر ز س ش ط ع غ ل م و ى َ ُ ِ ّ ْ ٔ ٕ ٜ ٰ ٻ ڟ ک ی ۑ, There is some variation in sources about the use of, Unicode policy for the Arabic script is to encode fully precomposed characters rather than to use combining characters for ijam. The final part of the book is the Hausa original in ajami (pp. Universität Wien's document also shows it being used alone, eg. ), U+0751 ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH DOT BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE, U+06A2 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW, U+06D1 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW, U+063F ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE. Below are examples of two styles of Hausa written in ajami, with a transcription in Romanized orthography. INTERESTING NOTE: Hausa was initially written using script known as ajami, which utilises a modified Arabic alphabet. The epigraphs on the naira notes are Ajami which is an Arabic derivative of Hausa. In the same way that Latin script is used to write Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Nupe, Kanuri, Igala and Ebira; the Arabic script is also deployed where necessary to write these same languages or others including English. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. In the following table, some vowels are shown with the Arabic letter for t as an example. Phonetic transcriptions on this page should be treated as an approximate guide, only. There is another orthography, that looks much closer to naskh, that is used with hand-written adaptations for the newspaper Al-Fijir, and is based on the Hafs orthography, but when writing in that orthography you need to use different code points from those used for the Kano style. … However, since Hausa ajami normally shows all the vowel diacritics, it actually functions as an alphabet. The style of writing in this example follows the con… I settled for the last of these, though not for any convincing reason. The Warsh form is ࢽ [U+08BD ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN NOON] and Hafs is ن [U+0646 ARABIC LETTER NOON]. In the samples listed in the sources, the following occur. , There is no standard system of using Ajami, and different writers may use letters with different values. The following list describes some distinctive characteristics of the Hausa ajami orthography. Hausa has a literary tradition extending back several centuries before contact with Western culture. شِدَیْنَا ʃiday͓naā, but not at the end of a word, eg. Vowel absence is usually marked (unlike Standard Arabic), including over the YEH or WAW that signal the final part of a diphthong. Many are more phonemic than phonetic, and there may be variations depending on the source of the transcription. It isn't clearly indicated (especially since the boko transcription doesn't indicate vowel length), but I find myself wondering whether they reflect the difference between long and short vowels. إِ [U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW + U+0650 ARABIC KASRA], ىِٕـ [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0650 ARABIC KASRA + U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW]npp, ◌ِىـ [U+0650 ARABIC KASRA + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA], ◌ِى [U+0650 ARABIC KASRA + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA], عُـ [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+064F ARABIC DAMMA], عُو [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW], ◌ُو [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW], عٜـ [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW]. Where i don't have other information, these 'initial' forms are shown using AIN in the table. There is no official standard for how to write African languages in ajami, and there has been a good deal of variation over the history of the writing.dbs In addition, dialects of Hausa have different phonemic repertoires, which are reflected in their writing. See the Arabic script summary for most of the information about how the Arabic script works, and the orthography used for the Arabic language. Bondarevdbs says that it is written as پ [U+067E ARABIC LETTER PEH] in modern text. One base character was encoded in Unicode 4.1: ݣ [U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], used for combinations with the sound k. Unicode code points for the other two were encoded in Unicode v13. References. The Arabic orthography for Hausa described here uses characters from the following Unicode blocks. Advertisement. These characters are a basic set used for the Warsh orthography. There are or have been a number of variant practices for writing Hausa ajami. It aims (generally) to provide an overview of the orthography and typographic features, and (specifically) to advise how to write Hausa using Unicode. The sections that follow this provide additional information. Hausa Ajami Script. ◌ٜـىٰـ [U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF], eg. You can experiment with examples using the Hausa ajami character app. The lettering states the note's currency value. In the written form, tons are represented by grave and acute accents. (Take care not to confuse these with ڠ [U+06A0 ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE] and ڨ [U+06A8 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], neither of which are used for Hausa.). Short vowels are written regularly with the help of vowel marks (which are seldom used in Arabic texts other than the Quran). The typical orthography is based on Warsh (Warš) forms, which incorporate Maghribi characteristics, and are often written with Kano style glyphs (as here). Nana Asma’u wrote poetry, primarily religious, in Arabic, Hausa, and Fula in Arabic ajami script. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for Hausa using the Arabic script. Typically written with ط [U+0637 ARABIC LETTER TAH], this is sometimes written using د [U+062F ARABIC LETTER DAL]. There are also some confusable characters. Observation: It appears to be very unusual for sounds other than a or i to appear at the start of a word. cursive text; Suna da hankali da tunani, saboda haka duk abin da za su aikata wa juna, ya kamata su yi shi a cikin yan-uwanci. Bambance rubutu tsakanin na allo da na boko. The default is to treat them as both opening and closing. Hausa Prose Writings in Ajami by Alhaji Umaru from A. Mischlich/H. His daughter, ! It should be borne in mind that while this page adopts a particular set of characters based on the Warsh variants as most representative of the orthography, and describes alternative characters under the label of 'infrequent', this is not necessarily representative of the orthography used in certain regions or contexts, especially outside the area around northern Nigeria.